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CLN4U Canadian & International Law – Grade 12 (University)

  • Grade 12

PREREQUISITE: Any university or university/college preparation course in Canadian and world studies, English, or social sciences and humanities.

GRADE: 12 (University)

AVAILABILITY: Full-time – All Campuses, Private – All campuses, Blyth Academy Online

THE ONTARIO CURRICULUMCanadian and World Studies

Course Overview

CLN4U online explores a range of contemporary legal issues and how they are addressed in both Canadian and international law. Students will develop their understanding of the principles of Canadian and international law when exploring rights and freedoms within the context of topics such as religion, security, cyberspace, immigration, crimes against humanity, and environmental protection. In CLN4U online, students will apply the concepts of legal thinking and the legal inquiry process when investigating these issues in both Canadian and international contexts, and they will develop legal reasoning skills and an understanding of conflict resolution in the area of international law.

Heritage of Canadian Law

Essential Question: What societies have shaped Canadian legal institutions?

In this unit, students will learn how their personal and cultural values influence law as well as what types of changes in society can lead to changes in the law. Students will examine what the legal debate around the kirpan has been in Canada and how it relates to values in a multicultural society. Students will learn what early forms of justice were like in Europe, what legal traditions have historically influenced Canadian law and how “common law” was developed. This unit will cover what primary and secondary sources of law are, the various categories of law and how religion and morality have influenced the law. Students will learn about jurisprudence and its various schools. Students will examine what is meant by the term “vice” and the debates around safe-injection sites and prostitution in Canada and how these debates relate to legal theory and philosophy.

Rights and Freedoms

Essential Question: How have our rights and freedoms developed?

In this unit, students will learn about the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Students will learn about the history of the Canadian constitution, what the BNA Act, Confederation, the Constitution Act, and the Meech Lake Accord are as well as how the Quebec independence movement has shaped Canada’s constitutional debate. Students will investigate what the Notwithstanding clause is, how it is invoked and what rights it can override. Students will gain an understanding of what happened during the 2010 G-20 summit in Toronto, and how the response to the protests related to Charter Rights. Students will learn about what is considered “hate speech” under Canadian law as well as the debate around Quebec’s proposed “charter of values”.

Criminal Law

Essential Question: How has Canadian criminal law been influenced by the past? What defines a crime?

In this unit, students will examine the myths and facts about crime and criminals as well as various psychological and sociological theories about why people commit crimes. Students will learn what different types of offences are, what mens rea and actus reus mean as well as what the difference between absolute and strict liability is. Students will explore the police procedure, different types of evidence and how warrants and “citizen’s arrest” works. Students will learn how the bail system works and why someone might be denied bail. They will also examine the different jobs held by those who can appear in the courtroom including the role of judges and juries. Students will investigate the defences that are acceptable in court and about the different types of defences. Finally, students will learn the factors a judge takes into consideration when determining a sentence and the various sentencing options available to a judge.

International Law

Essential Question: What is international law? How does international law affect domestic law?

In this unit, students will learn about the key principles of international law. Students will examine how the United Nations works, its different parts and criticisms of the United Nations. Students will learn about various issues in international law, what the Nuremberg trials were and how these trials affected international law. Students will learn what the International Criminal Court and the Rome Statute are, as well as examine some notable ICC cases and criticisms. Students will also learn about the declaration of the rights of a child and the different roles in an international criminal trial.

Please consult our Frequently Asked Questions Page or the Exam section within your course for more details on final exams and the exam fee. More information can also be found in our Student Handbook.

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